Czytelnia / Technologie tłumaczeniowe

2. Terminology Management Tools in the Translation Process

Terminology management tools act as specialist machine-readable dictionaries equipped  with  a  number  of additional  functionalities.  The  termbases  may  be  populated  manually  by  the  translators,  either  at  the  beginning  of  a  project,  or  while  actually  performing  the  translation. They can also be fed with the existing terminology collections by way of import.   The  difference  between  a  regular  machine-readable  dictionary  and  a  TMS  is  that  terminology management tools allow not only for the creation of custom dictionaries, with a  user-definable  entry  structure,  but  also  that  these  tools  offer  a  number  of  automated  functions, e.g. automatic term recognition and insertion, quality checks, etc.   The typical workflow for translators using workbench tools consists of a number of phases,  each  involving  both  TM  and  TMS  modules. The  first  phase  -  preparation  consists  in  preparing all the modules for a given translation project. It  may require importing external  translation  memories  and  terminology  collections  into  respective  modules,  and,  depending  on  the  tool,  also  importing  the  SL  files  into  the  project7.  Depending  on  the  resources  provided  by  the  client,  it  is  also  possible  to  create  translation  memories  and  automatic  terminology  extraction  by  way  of  alignment.  Once  the  data  is  imported  to  the  modules,  translation memory and termbase should be associated with the project. Pretranslation is the  next  step.  This  function  divides  the  source  file  into  segments  and  searches  through  the  termbase  and  translation memory,  looking  for  the  matching  terms  and  segments. Once  the  analysis  is  done  and  the  target  segments  have  been  filled  with  what  was  found  in  the  databases, the actual translation may begin. During translation the terminology database can  be  searched  and  the  terminological  records  can  be  consulted  in  order  to  make  the  best  possible  choice.  New  terms  can  be  added  throughout  the  whole  process,  either  by  way  of  automatic sending the term pairs to the termbase or by manual data entry. Also translation  memory  is  updated  during  translation.  Finally,  all  kinds  of  quality  checks  are  performed,  including spell checking, numbers and terminology checks i.e. whether all instances of a given  SL  term  have  been  translated  in  the  same  way  into  TL  and  all  numbers  have  been  converted  into  the  appropriate  format.  Next,  the  text  can  be  exported  for  proofreading,  following which, both termbase and translation memory should be updated. The final export  is the last step of the CAT-supported translation process. The above diagram prepared by the  author illustrates this process. A more specific description of the functionalities outlined in  this process description will be provided in the next section. (See Diagram 1. Usual workflow model in translation using TM and TMS modules).

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7Some applications require importing the SL file into the application. The translation process is then carried  out in the native format of the tool. Other applications act as macros associated with word processors and do not require import, but operate directly on the original file.